Tree frog 🐸


Tree frogs are a diverse family of amphibians that includes over 800 species. Not all tree frogs live in trees. Rather, the feature that unites them has to do with their feet—the last bone in their toes (called the terminal phalanx) is shaped like a claw. Tree frogs also have toe pads to help them climb and many have extra skeletal structures in their toes. Tree frogs can be a variety of colors, but most of the species found in the United States are green, gray, or brown. Some of them, like the squirrel tree frog (Hyla squirella), are chameleon-like in their ability to change color.

Although tree frogs can grow to be a range of sizes, most arboreal species are very small because they rely on leaves and slender branches to hold their weight. At 4 to 5.5 inches (10 to 14 centimeters) long, the white-lipped tree frog (Litoria infrafrenata) from Australia and Oceania is the largest tree frog in the world. The largest tree frog in the United States is the non-native Cuban tree frog, which reaches 1.5 to 5 inches (3.8 to 12.7 centimeters) in length. The world’s smallest tree frogs are less than an inch (2.5 centimeters) long!

Tree frog 🐸


Tree frogs are found on every continent except Antarctica, but they’re most diverse in the tropics of the western hemisphere. About 30 species live in the United States, and over 600 can be found in South and Central America. Not surprisingly, lots of tree frogs are arboreal, meaning they live in trees. Special adaptations like toe pads and long legs aid them in climbing and jumping. Non-arboreal tree frogs find habitats in lakes and ponds or among moist ground cover.Tree frogs are consumed by many different carnivorous animals. Mammals , reptiles , birds , and fish  all eat tree frogs. Many of the frogs rely on camouflage to protect themselves from predators, and the more arboreal species escape ground-dwelling predators by hiding in trees.


Adult tree frogs are insectivores that eat flies, ants, crickets, beetles, moths, and other small invertebrates. However, as tadpoles, most of them are herbivores.


Almost all male frogs attract mates with advertisement calls. Each frog species has its own call so female frogs can listen for potential suitors of their own species. The frog call that most people are familiar with—“Ribbet!”—belongs to the Baja California tree frog (Pseudacris hypochondriaca). The ribbeting call has been incorporated into outdoor scenes of many Hollywood movies, even outside of the frog’s range.
Some frogs hatch as miniature adults. More commonly, however, tadpoles emerge from frog eggs. As tadpoles mature, they lose their tail and grow legs until they eventually reach their adult form. The lifespan of tree frogs varies among species. Some of them are long-lived, such as the Australian green tree frog (Litoria caerulea), which is often kept in captivity for upward of 15 years. Species with lifespans of less than three years are considered short-lived. North America’s gray tree frogs (Hyla versicolor and Hyla chrysoscelis) are somewhere in the middle with a lifespan of five to nine years.


Amphibians are declining worldwide and are collectively one of the most at-risk groups for extinction. They breathe through their skin, which makes them especially sensitive to environmental change. Threats to tree frogs include habitat destruction, pollution, climate change, and diseases like chytridiomycosis.


Not all members of the tree frog family Hylidae live in trees, and not all frogs that live in trees are in the hylid family.

Pic Credit goes to :- Shubham shashwat 😌😊☺️🤗


Mole FactsMoles are unique creatures that spend their lives underground, constantly digging to hunt and navigate under the earth’s surface. Their digging habits notoriously destroy lawns, gardens and golf courses, frustrating home and business owners. Below, learn more about their habitat, diet, and how to identify mole damage.

Mole :Talpidae.

General Mole Facts
North American Mole Species:

  • Eastern mole (Scalopus aquaticus)
  • hairy-tailed mole (Parascalops breweri)
  • star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata)
  • broad-footed mole (Scapanus latimanus)
  • Towsend’s mole (Scapanus townsendii)
  • coast mole (Scapanus orarius)
  • American shrew mole (Neurotrichus gibbsii)

Average Size: 4-11″ long (including tail); .25-7.5 oz.

Average Lifespan in the Wild: 3-6 yearsIdentifying Features: brown or grey fur; cylindrical body with a short tail; very small concealed eyes and ears; small hind feet and larger forefeet for digging; polydactyl forepaws (2 thumbs on each).

Mole Geography

Moles are found throughout most of North America, Europe and Asia. There are seven different species in the continental United States – the most common species being the Eastern mole.

Mole Habitat

Fossorial by nature, moles live and forage underground in broad systems of burrows and tunnels. Because they prefer to dig in soil that is loose and moist, they are most abundant in fields, meadows, orchards and forests with plenty of shady vegetation that provides this type of underground environment.
One solitary mole’s range can extend up to 2.7 acres. A mole’s underground territory consists of large, complex burrow systems with separate areas for living and for hunting.

Mole Diet

Moles are insectivores, eating 70-100% of their weight in worms, grubs and insects each day. In order to hunt down their ground-dwelling prey, moles constantly excavate, leaving behind a series of tunnels. This digging requires a tremendous amount of energy, which may explain the mole’s voracious appetite.A mole’s diet consists of large amounts of small invertebrates like:

Mole Behavior

Activity: Moles are active throughout the daytime and nighttime. Although moles are active year-round, they tend to exhibit less foraging activity in extreme heat or cold. They are most active after periods of rain or watering, when the soil texture is ideal for digging.

Reproduction: Mating season begins in late winter. Gestation lasts about 42 days, after which time females give birth to 2-5 young. Baby moles become independent from their mothers after about a month of age.Social

Interaction: Most moles are solitary animals, only socializing when they reproduce. The star-nosed mole is the only species thought to live in colonies. Within the other species, mole populations may range from 1 mole per 6 acres to up to 5 moles per 1 acre.

Digging: Moles spend most of their time digging tunnels in search of worms and grubs to eat. When digging these tunnels, moles tend to follow manmade edges like fence lines or building foundations. Periodically moles will pause to push the loosened soil to the surface, resulting in the creation of molehills.

Identify Mole Damage.

Some homeowners find moles beneficial because they prey on many destructive insects and their digging helps to aerate the soil. However, many feel that the damage moles cause to their lawns outweigh any benefits they provide.Signs of mole damage include:

  • molehills: cone-shaped mounds of soil about 6-24 inches in diameter and 2-8 inches high; entrances softly plugged and not readily visible
  • mole runs: irregular trails/ridges of pushed-up soil about 3 inches wide caused by tunneling

Fun Facts😮

Moles can dig tunnels at a rate of up to 15 feet per hour.

Although moles may resemble mice and rats, they are not rodents. Instead they are insectivores – more closely related to bats.

Like pigs, male moles are called “boars” and female moles are called “sows”.

Unique adaptations in the hemoglobin of moles allow them to survive underground with low levels of oxygen and high levels of carbon dioxide.

In cold and/or dry weather, moles will often dig deeper into the ground, following their food source.
A mole’s saliva contains a toxin that paralyzes worms, allowing them to gather and store food for consumption later on.

Before eating a captured earthworm, a mole may squeeze the worm between its forepaws to release the unwanted dirt from its gut.

Moles are some of the only animals that can smell in stereo. This means they can detect odors immediately as well as determine the direction from which they are traveling. Smelling in stereo is a great advantage for moles, because it allows them to quickly and accurately locate food and predators.

Moles are often blamed for the eating of roots and seeds, but moles are insectivores that almost never eat plants or plant matter.

Other plant-eating animals like voles will use the hunting tunnels left behind by moles, and generally they are the true culprits. However as a result of tunneling, moles can dislodge plant roots and kill grass.


The mystery of the Hanging Pillar in Veerabhadra Swamy Lepakshi temple of Andhra Pradesh

The great Vijayanagara empire gave patronage to Indian artists. The Veerbhadra Lepakshi Temple at Anantapur in Andhra Pradesh is a marvel in stone. Many tried exploring how a stone pillar hangs but failed………😮😮😮

Key Highlights

  • One big mystery at the Lepakshi temple is how the hanging piller was constructed or carved.
  • While sixty-nine other pillars support the ceiling, one corner pillar does not touch the temple floor at all.
  • There is a small gap between the temple floor and base of the pillar and you can pass thin objects like a piece of cloth from one side to the other.

The Lepakshi temple, also known as Veerbhadra temple is one among the marvels of ancient Indian architecture. Carved out of rock, this magnificence in stone speaks volumes about the great Vijayanagara Empire. 

The shrine dedicated to Lord Veerabhadra, the Lepakshi Temple is an exhibition of timeless art which includes beautiful frescoes and murals. Much of the temple is built on a low, rocky hill called Kurmasailam (“tortoise hill” in Telugu) – inspired by the shape of the hill. 

As per the Puranas, the Veerabhadra temple was built by the sage Agastya. Moortis of Ganesha, Nandi, Veerabhadra, Shiva, Bhadrakali, Vishnu and Lakshmi are important deities in the temple. It is also believed that Pakshi Jatayu fell at this spot after his battle with Ravana to rescue Mata Sita. Lord Rama is said to have said to the brave bird “Le Pakshi” — ‘rise, bird’ in Telugu. This temple also houses a footprint that is believed to be of Mata Sita. 

Walking around the temple, you will discover the glory of the Vijayanagara kingdom which gave patronage to artists who created these amazing pictorial representations. Carved in its walls are images of musicians and saints. You will see beautiful dancing Ganesha moorti, murtis of Mata Parvati and Lord Shiva. There is also a cave chamber here where Sage Agasthya is said to have lived. 

Poison frog ….🐸🤫

Poison frog, (family Dendrobatidae), also called poison dart frog, dart-poison frog, or poison arrow frog, any of approximately 180 species of New World frogs characterized by the ability to produce extremely poisonous skin secretions. Poison frogs inhabit the forests of the New World tropics from Nicaragua to Peru and Brazil, and a few species are used by South American tribes to coat the tips of darts and arrows. Poison frogs, or dendrobatids, are small and range from 12 to 19 mm (0.5 to 0.75 inch) from snout to vent in the minute poison frogs (Minyobates) to about 65 mm (2.6 inches) in the skunk frog (Aromobates nocturnus).

Kokoa frog or south American poison arrow frog ( dendrobates auratus )

All frogs (order Anura) produce poisonous skin secretions; however, humans do not notice the toxicity or suffer skin irritation when handling most species. Nonetheless, handling one of the brightly coloured dendrobatids, such as Dendrobates and Phyllobates, requires caution because their alkaloid skin secretions are potentially lethal if absorbed through human mucous membranes or passed into the body through a cut on the skin. In fact, the skin secretion of the true poison dart frog, or golden poison frog (Phyllobates terribilis), is so toxic that the tip of a dart rubbed across its back picks up sufficient poison to kill a large bird or a monkey. The origin and production of the toxic skin secretions remains uncertain, but at least in some dendrobatids it appears to be derived from their consumption of beetles, their primary prey. When kept in captivity and fed a diet devoid of beetles, the skin secretions of poison frogs lack the highly toxic alkaloids.

World’s most beautiful frog 🐸

All frogs (order Anura) produce poisonous skin secretions; however, humans do not notice the toxicity or suffer skin irritation when handling most species. Nonetheless, handling one of the brightly coloured dendrobatids, such as Dendrobates and Phyllobates, requires caution because their alkaloid skin secretions are potentially lethal if absorbed through human mucous membranes or passed into the body through a cut on the skin. In fact, the skin secretion of the true poison dart frog, or golden poison frog (Phyllobates terribilis), is so toxic that the tip of a dart rubbed across its back picks up sufficient poison to kill a large bird or a monkey. The origin and production of the toxic skin secretions remains uncertain, but at least in some dendrobatids it appears to be derived from their consumption of beetles, their primary prey. When kept in captivity and fed a diet devoid of beetles, the skin secretions of poison frogs lack the highly toxic alkaloids.

World most poisonous frog sells for Rs . 1.5 lakh in market 😮

Parental care of the young, which is often performed by the male, occurs in all poison frog species. The male attracts a female to his residence beneath a leaf or log, and she lays the eggs and often departs. The male remains to guard the clutch; however, in some species the female remains. When the tadpoles hatch, the parent allows the tadpoles to swim or crawl up onto his or her back. They are subsequently carried to a nearby body of water (such as a stream, a pond, or a tree hole). There, the tadpoles slide off the back of the parent and into the water to complete their development.

strawberry poison dart frog (Dendrobates pumilio) perching on a leaf in the Amazon rainforest.

Superficially, the mantelline frogs of Madagascar (family Mantellidae) appear nearly identical to the dendrobatids; however, they are not closely related. The similarities between the two groups are attributed to convergent evolution. Also, both are comparable in terms of physical size, as mantellines range from 15 to 120 mm (0.6 inch to nearly 5 inches) from snout to vent, although most species are less than 60 mm (about 2.5 inches) long. While the skin secretions of the mantellines have not been thoroughly studied, the secretions of Mantella are toxic and capable of killing vertebrate predators.Mantellines include more than 100 species in three genera of terrestrial to arboreal (tree-dwelling) forms that live in semiarid scrubland to rainforest habitats. Some species lay eggs on leaves that overhang bodies of water, and hatching larvae then drop into the water. Other species lay terrestrial eggs that develop either directly into froglets or into a nonaquatic, nonfeeding tadpole stage. In addition, parental care occurs in some mantelline species with terrestrial eggs.


Glass frog 🐸(amphibian)

Glass frog, (family Centrolenidae), any of a group of tree frogs found in the New World tropics, some species of which have translucent bellies and chests. In glass frogs the viscera are visible, and an observer can see the heart pumping blood into the arteries and food moving through the gut. The frogs’ translucency is a type of camouflage, in which the edge of an animal blends with the relative brightness or darkness of its surroundings. This phenomenon, called edge diffusion, softens the line separating the colour of a frog’s skin from the colour of its background. Not all species have a translucent underside. Viewed from above, most glass frogs appear light green. Their patterning ranges from uniform green to green with white to yellow spots that mimic glass frog eggs. Glass frogs have expanded digit tips that aid in climbing, and this trait allows most to live in trees or shrubs along forest streams.

Glass frog 🐸

Glass frogs include more than 120 species in about 10 genera (with most species classified in the genera CentroleneCochranella, and Hyalinobatrachium). They occur from tropical lowland forests to mid-elevation mountain forests. Most species are small, with adults ranging from 20 to 30 mm (0.8 to1.2 inches) in total length. In a few species adults are larger, attaining a maximum length of nearly 80 mm (3 inches).

For mating to occur, males must first call to females. Calling males sit on leaves—either the top or underside depending upon the species—over streams or lake edges. When a female comes, she does not descend to the water with the amplexing male. Instead, they mate on the calling leaf where she deposits her eggs. After she departs, the male often remains to protect the eggs from predators and call additional females. Some males will attract other females and thus have several egg clutches in various developmental stages to guard. When the tadpoles hatch, they fall into the water below. Tadpoles usually live and feed amidst the leaf litter and stream-side detritus until they metamorphose into froglets. One of the major egg predators are “frog flies,” which lay their eggs on the egg masses. The flies’ eggs hatch quickly, and the maggots feed on the frog embryos.


Covid the silent killer 🤫🤫🤫👩‍⚕️

The COVID-19 pandemic has turned our lives upside down in so many ways. From lockdowns, social distancing to working from home, our daily routines have been completely overhauled.

Save from this silent killer 🤫

Now people are beginning to ask an important question – are these changes temporary? Or will they be a permanent part of our lives from now onwards?

Why our lives may not be the same again

We have read news reports of healthcare workers working 24*7 to battle COVID-19 at great risk to their lives. Some of them are staying in temporary hostels, away from their families and doing their job.

But can they continue to work in a state of high alert forever? That too, while putting themselves in danger. The stress due to COVID-19 on our healthcare system needs to come down.

Moreover, consider the present situation in the world, the summer Olympics, IPL, major trade conventions to India’s economy – everything has come to a halt due to COVID-19. While no one can say for certain when things will go back to normal, or if they even will, one thing is certain.

Our lives after the lockdown will no longer be the same. There will be radical changes in how we work, commute, socialize and communicate.

This is a must to ensure COVID-19 is contained for our own good.

Life after lockdown

  1. Embrace contactless greetings

Planning to shake hands? Think again. Immediately after COVID-19 struck, there were visuals of world leaders ditching the handshake and using the ‘Namaste’ greeting. The Namaste is a form of greeting used in India that does not involve contact with the other person, unlike a handshake.

With social distancing being encouraged, we will see more and more people ditching the handshake because of the risk a handshake carries in a post-COVID-19 world.

  1. Changing the way we learn

With schools and colleges being shut, there is a lot of interest around online classes. Teachers across the world are using the power of the internet to deliver educational content to a student’s house.

Real-time online classes are being held on apps like Zoom that have ensured that the absence of a physical classroom does not stop the learning of students. This could signal a change in the way students learn in a school after the pandemic ends.

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  1. Frequent washing of hands

Are you washing your hands frequently? One thing the COVID-19 pandemic has taught us is to maintain very high standards of personal hygiene. People are now understanding how simple acts like washing hands with soap and water may save their lives.

Before the pandemic started, many of us treated hand washing very casually, but that has changed completely in the past few months. And this change is something that is going to stay for a long time to come.

  1. No more public spitting

In India, it is common to see spit stains on government buildings, railway stations and roads. While the government tried to spread awareness by putting up posters and even imposing fines, no one cared.

But now that everyone has to wear masks in public places and maintain personal hygiene, spitting could be a thing of the past.

  1. Better air quality

Three to four weeks into the lockdown, environmentalists across the world noticed something strange – the ozone layer was healing itself. Not just that, air quality in cities like Delhi and Mumbai has improved drastically during the lockdown.

What this tells us is that nature can heal quickly if we give it a little space and time. This will put into perspective how we have taken nature for a ride all these years and encourage people to do more for the environment and enjoy the advantages of a greener earth.

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  1. Be more grateful

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought us closer than ever before. Everyone is united in efforts to contain the virus. We have realized that if we don’t prepare ourselves well, then we can lose what we have now.

This thought that we may lose it if we are not careful has made us more appreciative of the present and thankful for what we have.


While we may be in lockdown at present, we should prepare ourselves mentally for the changes going to take place post-COVID-19. This will help us adapt and emerge as stronger individuals.


A cell is a structural and functional unit of all living organisms. It is microscopic and capable of independent existence. All living things are made up of cells.

Cell is the basic functional and structural units

The outward differences among the various biological forms may bewilder us. But underlying these differences is a powerful uniformity.

That is all biological systems are composed of same types of molecules and they all employ similar principles of organization at the cellular level. We shall see for example, that all living organisms employ the same genetic code and a similar machinery for protein synthesis.

Organisms contain organs, organs composed of tissues, tissues are made up of cells; and cells are formed of organelles and organelles are made up of molecules. However, in all living organisms, the cell is the functional unit.

What is science?

The word science originates from the Latin verb scientia meaning ‘to know’. The sanskrit word Vijnan and the Arabic word Ilm convey similar meaning. Namely knowledge’. Science in a broad sense is as old as human species. The early civilisations of Egypt, India, China, Greece, Mesopotamia and many others made vital contributing to its progress. From the sixteenth century onwards, great strides were made in science in Europe. Science is a systematic attempt to understand natural phenomenon in as much detail and depth as possible and use the knowledge so gained to predict , modify and control phenomenon. Science is exploring, experimenting and predicting or let from what we see around us. The curiosity to learn about the world, unraveling the secrets of nature is the first step toward the discovery of science. ✌